What is RFID Card and how does it works? Here are explained from two aspects of physical properties and technical properties.
If RFID Tag is the general description of RFID transponders that to receive, store and transmit data with RFID reader via radio waves. The RFID card is distinguished with its obvious physical characteristics and used for specific applications.
The primary RFID Card dimensions are known as “standard credit card” size, which named ID-1 or CR80 that codified by the International Organization for Standards in the specification document ISO/IEC 7810 (Identification Cards–Physical Characteristics).
ISO/IEC 7810 specifies the size of ID-1/CR80 equals to 85.60 by 53.98 millimeters (3 3⁄8″ × 2 1⁄8″ ), with a radius of 2.88–3.48 mm (about 1⁄8″ ) for round corners. The thickness of RFID card varies from 0.5mm-1mm depend on the different production processes and customer needs.
There are other dimensions available, which as known as customized dimensions.
The majorate of RFID Card is still using plastic polymers as the base material. The most commonly used plastic polymer is PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) due to its durability, flexibility and versatility for card making. PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) is the 2nd most commonly used plastic polymer for card making due to its highly durable and heat-resistant.
There are already trends for solution finding of plastic substitutes, that to use Bio-polymers or none plastic material of different forms as the base material for card making. An example of those already in the market is wooden RFID card, however the much higher cost limits the scope of application.
Printing & additional craft
RFID card could be pre-printed with intricate artwork via offset printing, digital printing or screen printing. There are many additional crafts available, such as serial number printing; bar code or QR code printing (generate according to UID); or magnetic stripe attach etc.
Technical properties and how RFID card works
If the physical properties define RFID card out of RFID tag, it is the technical attributes of RFID card make itself unique from other card shape products.
In simple, every RFID card embeds with an antenna that connected with an RFID IC, hence it can receive, store and transmit data via radio waves. RFID card usually is using passive RFID technology without an internal power source. The RFID card powered to work by the electromagnetic energy received that transmitted from RFID reader.
There are four categories of RFID cards based on the difference between frequencies.
- Low Frequency at 125KHz RFID card, with a reading distance of 1-2cm.
- High Frequency at 13.56MHz RFID card, with a reading distance of up to 10cm.
- Ultra-High Frequency at 860-960MHz RFID card, with a reading distance of 1-20 meters.
- Combination of two or even three different frequencies into a single RFID Card.